Info on Sumo in Idaho

The best place to get the most up to date and comprehensive information on Sumo in Idaho

Rules

The rules of sumo are simple. This adds to the enjoyment of the sport by allowing people to easily understand what is happening and also allowing for a wide variety of technique to be used to achieve victory.

Two competitors will face each other in the dohyo. The dohyo is fifteen (15) feet across in any direction. The object is to force your opponent out of the dohyo or cause them to touch the ground with any part of their body other than the soles of their feet.

Open palm strikes are allowed, but no closed fists

Foot sweeps below the knee are legal

Joint locks and headlocks are legal, so long as the intention is to force your opponent out of the ring or down to the ground. Causing unnecessary pain or trying to cause injury is forbidden.

                                                                 Fouls

Any of the following is illegal and will result in an immediate and automatic loss.

  • Striking the opponent with a closed fist
  • Grabbing the opponent's hair
  • Jabbing at the opponent's eyes or solar plexus
  • Palm striking both of the opponent's ears at the same time
  • Grabbing or pulling at the opponent's groin area or back strip of the mawashi 
  • Grabbing the opponent's throat
  • Kicking at the opponent's chest or waist
  • Bending back one or more of the opponent's fingers
  • Weight Classes

    MEN

    Lightweight - 187 lbs and below 

    Middleweight - 188 lbs to 253 lbs

    Heavyweight - 254 lbs and above

    Open weight - No weight restrictions

    Women

    Lightweight - 143 lbs and below

    Middleweight - 144 lbs to 176 lbs

    Heavyweight - 177 lbs and above

    Open weight - No weight restrictions

    The Match

    To start a match two competitors will step up to the dohyo (ring). They will be on opposite sides of the dohyo, facing each other. The referee represents North where ever he stands in the ring, regardless of actual compass North. The first person called approaches from the East (relative to the referee), the second person called aproaches from the West. On the command of "REI" (bow) the opponents will bow to each other and then will step just inside the dohyo.

    Once inside the dohyo the wrestlers will squat down to perform their pre bout ritual. In amature sumo this is an abreviated ritual. It is supposed to indicate a competitors intention to fight fair as well as giving the wrestlers time to prepare mentally. The ritual begins by bringing the hands together and simulating washing them by turning them over two or three times. This practice stems from the samurai, who would wash their hands before a battle. The washing was supposed to clean mind, body and soul. This it was believed would allow you to focus more clearly on the battle

                                                      

    After the "washing" the arms are drawn back and then clapped loudly. Ideally this clap is timed with your opponent to produce a greater noise. It is believed that sumo is entertainment for the gods. Exciting sumo will result in blessing of health and plenty for the community. The clap is to wake the gods, and draw their attention to the matches that are about to take place. This is for the benefit of the whole community.

     

    The hands are then extended out, and raised slightly above the shoulder with palms turned up. The palms are  then rotated down and then lowered to the thighs or knees. This is to show that you have no weapons and intend to fight fair.

     

    After the pre bout ritual is performed, both competitors will rise and walk to the center of the ring. They will squat down behind the shikiri-sen (starting lines) and stare each other down. This face off is used to try and read what your opponent is thinking, send false signals of your own, and make final mental preperations befor the match.

    After the stare down both competitors will get in their starting position. This is similar to the 3 point stance of a foot ball player. In amature sumo the referee starts the bout. When both competitors have placed both hands on the ground, the referee will call "Hakkeyoi" that is the signal to begin the match. 

     

    The tachiai or "bull rush" starts the match. It is one of the main differences in sumo from other forms of grappling. It is a dynamic aspect of sumo. The tachiai is extremely important, up to 80% of a sumo match is determined by the tachiai.  

     

    After the intial hit, opponents will push and wrestle each other with the object being to get your opponent outside of the ring or to touch the floor with any part of their body other than the souls of their feet. Matches typically last about 8 to 10 seconds. Generally an entertaining variety of techniques is used.

     

     

     

    Kimarite (Winning Techniques)

    Kimarite are the techniques used to win a sumo match. There are over 80 recognized techniques though this is periodically adjusted. Although there areover 80 recognized techniques for winning a match you rarely see more than the 25 most common in pro sumo. In international sumo because of the different training backgrounds of the competitors and the different weight classes you see a far broader variety of techniques.

    The below listed techniques are officially listed by the Japan Sumo Federation, however because sumo has so few rules many ideas and styles may be used to acheive victory, so it is recommended that you use what you are most comfortable with. In 2001 an expansion of the list of winning techniques was done. Twelve new kimarite were officially recognized. I believe this was due to a strong pressence of wrestlers from around the world. These wrestlers have been using skills aquired from many different backgrounds such as Judo, Sambo, Mongolian wrestling, and Freestyle and Greco-roman wrestling.

     In many cases a technique is recognized as seperate and distinct based on small variables such as whether  your opponent stays on his feet or falls down when you push him out of thedohyo (ring). Landing on top of your opponent can also cause a technique to be listed differently.The names of the kimarite are usually compound words that combine two or more techniques together to explain the method used to win. Here are some of the more common compounds:

    oshi = push with elbows bent
    uwate = outer grip on belt
    otoshi = drop
    tsuki = push with elbows locked
    shitate = inner grip on belt
    hineri = twist
    yori = lean or force with one's weight
    kiri = literally to cut, or force out
    k/gake = trip
    okuri = send out of the ring
    nage = throw
    dashi = send out of the ring
    soto = outside
    taoshi = knock down to the ring
    hiki = pull down
    uchi = inside

     

    Here is a complete list of all the official winning techniques with a description. Note that in all the pictures the sumo wrestler with the colored mawashi (belt) is performing the move, he is also lighter in appearance.

    Abisetaoshi                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

    (backward force down) - The attacker will force his   opponent over backwards by throwing his weight into the opponent from a grappling position.

    Amiuchi 

     (the fisherman's throw) - The attacker will throw his opponent behind him by pulling the opponent's arm with both hands while twisting backwards. The technique resembles the traditional way of casting a Japanese fishing net; hence the name.

    Ashitori

     (leg pick) - Similar to a technique of the same name found in both amateur and professional wrestling in which the attacker takes his opponent down by grabbing and lifting the opponent's leg with both hands.

     Chongake

     (pulling heel hook) - The attacker will hook his heel behind the defender's heel from the inside (left foot to left foot or right foot to right). As he pulls that leg towards him, he will grab the defender's arm on the same side and twist him sideways or backwards into the clay.

    Gasshohineri

    (clasped hand twist down) - Although this technique can be done from a one hand inside, one hand outside grip, it would more commonly be used when the attacker has achieved a double inside grip. From this position, the attacker would clasp his hands behind the defender’s back and twist him down and over. Gasshohineri was also called tokkurinage but that technique name is now used for a variation that has become one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Harimanage

     (backward belt throw) - A sacrifice technique usually done as a last ditch throw at the edge. The attacker will throw his opponent behind him by reaching over the opponent's shoulder to grab the mawashi from behind and then pull him past his own body while twisting into him. The name comes from the image of a weak wave hitting a rock and then drifting past it.

    Hatakikomi

    (slap down) - One of sumo's most common techniques and often seen at the tachi-ai or initial charge. The attacker will shift away as his opponent charges in with his head too low. As he shifts, he will slap the opponent's shoulder, back or arm with one or both hands, forcing him to touch the surface of the ring with his hand or hands.

    Hikiotoshi

     (hand pull down) - A common sumo technique, similar to hatakikomi, in which the attacker pulls the opponent down while backing away by pulling on his arm shoulder or the front of his mawashi.

    Hikkake

     (arm grabbing force out) - In this technique the attacker will drive his opponent out of the ring by grabbing his arm with both hands, often in response to a tsuki/oshi (pushing/thrusting) attack and pull him past and to the attacker's rear while moving backwards and to the side.

    Ipponzeoi

     (one armed shoulder throw) - Similar to the judo technique of the same name, the attacker will pull one of the defender's arms with both hands. Releasing the hand closet to the defender's shoulder, he will turn into his opponent, locking up that arm with his free arm as he pulls with the hand furthest from that shoulder. He will then heave his opponent over his shoulder/hip.

    Izori

     (backwards body drop) - The attacker will dive under his opponent's charge so the defender is leaning on top and over him. The attacker will then grab behind either one or both knees, or the front of the defender's mawashi, and use his lower body/back to lift him up and over backwards.

    Kainahineri

     (two-handed arm twist down) - The attacker will lock up one of the defender's arms with both arms and, turning into his opponent, twist him over and into the clay.

    Kakenage 

    (hooking inner thigh throw) - The attacker will hook one leg inside the defender's legs and turn away from him. As he raises the hooked leg up and back, he will wrap his foot around the defender's ankle or lower calf. By driving that attacking leg up and backwards, he will force the defender up and over into the clay.

     Kakezori

     (hooking backwards body drop) - The attacker will have his head placed under one of the defender's arms while taking an inside grip on the opposite side of his opponent's mawashi. Taking a deep step from the same side as his gripping hand, he will attempt to either twist the defender over that leg or hook the defender's closest leg. At the same time, he will drive his head into the defender's side to force him over backwards.

    Katasukashi

    (under-shoulder swing down) - The attacker will force his opponent into the clay by placing one hand on the opponent's shoulder blade from the inside and one from the outside, pulling him down and forward while backing away.

    Kawazugake

    (hooking backward counter throw) - From a grappling position, the attacker will hook his opponent's closest leg from the inside and take him over backwards by pulling that hooked leg forward and across his own body. A sacrifice technique.

    Kekaeshi

    (minor inner footsweep) - The attacker will sweep his opponent's leg out from under him by kicking the defender's leg from the inside. The sweep is right foot to right foot or left to left. The footsweep is often accompanied by a well-timed slap on the defender's back as he begins to lean forward.

    Ketaguri

    (pulling inside ankle sweep) - Usually seen at the tachi-ai or initial charge, the attacker will leap to the side and kick or sweep his opponent's lead leg from the inside while slapping the shoulder or pulling the arm closest to him.

    Kimedashi

     (arm barring force out) - The attacker will lock up or bar the defender's arms by wrapping his own arms around them from the outside. He will then grab one of his own wrists, pulling up and in. This puts tremendous pressure on the defender's elbows and allows the attacker to march or swing his opponent backwards and out of the ring.

    Kimetaoshi

     (arm barring force down) - The attacker will bar his opponent's arm or arms from the outside. He will than force the opponent down by throwing his weight into and on top of him. It is most often seen today after the opponent has a achieved a double inside grip.

    kirikaeshi

     (twisting backward knee trip) - The attacker will take a deep step forward with his lead leg so his knee is placed behind his opponent's lead leg. He will then throw the opponent by twisting him backwards and over that knee.

    Komatasukui

     (over thigh scooping body drop) - This technique is best used in combination with an uwatenage (overarm throw) or a shitatenage (underarm throw). As the opponent defends against the throw by taking a deep step forward, the attacker will reach down with his "free hand" and grab the opponent's leg on or near the thigh. He wll then pull up, driving the opponent over backwards.

    Koshinage

     (hip throw) - The attacker will turn into his opponent while pulling him onto his hips. As the attacker continues to pull, he will straigthen his knees, throwing the defender over and onto his back. This throw can be done from either and inside or outside grip.

    Kotehineri

     (armlocking twist down) - In this technique the attacker has wrapped his arm around the defender’s inside gripping arm. He will then lock up that arm at the defender’s biceps or elbow and twist him around and down in the direction of that inside arm. The attacker’s other hand can be in an inside or outside gripping position, placed along the defender’s back or wrapped around his head or neck when initiating this technique. The attacker will throw his opponent by wrapping his arm around the opponent's inside gripping arm, locking it up on or near the elbow and turning away from him. Often used as a last ditch attempt to win at the edge. This is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Kotenage

    (armlock throw) - The attacker will throw his opponent by wrapping his arm around the opponent's inside gripping arm, locking it up on or near the elbow and turning away from him. Often used as a last ditch attempt to win at the edge.  

    Kozumatori

    (ankle pick) - The most common form of kozumatori has the attacker leaning into his opponent while attempting a forward drive. While moving forward, he will slide his hand down his opponent’s leg from the outside, grabbing it at the ankle or the base of the calf. He will then pull that ankle towards him and up while driving his body into his foe, forcing him over onto his back. A variation of this technique has the attacker pulling on the same ankle or calf from behind his opponent. This is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Kubihineri

    (head twisting throw) - The attacker will wrap one hand around his opponent's neck. With his other hand, he will grab the defender's inside gripping arm. The attacker will then drive the hand gripping the defender's neck in the direction that hand's palm is facing; twisting the defender into the clay. This is considered a power technique.

    Kubinage

    (headlock throw) - Almost identical to a technique of the same name found in all combative arts that include any kind of grappling. The attacker will turn into his opponent, throwing him by wrapping one arm around his neck as he makes that turn. The attacker's other hand is usually gripping the opponent's arm furthest from him from the outside.

    Makiotoshi

    (twist down) - The attacker will throw his opponent by twisting him towards his own, inside hand. When executing the throw, the attacker will not be gripping the mawashi.

    Mitokorozeme

    (triple attack force out) - This technique involves combining three separate attacks at the same time. While the attacker attempts an inside leg trip with one leg, he will grab the defender's other leg behind the thigh and try to pull that leg out from under him. At the same time, he will drive his head into his opponent's stomach or chest in order to force him backwards.

    Nichonage

    (body drop throw) - The attacker, working from either an inside or outside grip, will place one leg in front of the defender's leg, usually at the knee, as he turns to face the same direction the defender is facing. As the attacker sweeps back with his leg he will pull forward, throwing the defender over that extended leg.

    Nimaigeri

    (ankle kicking twist down) - As the attacker pulls his opponent up and into him, he will kick the defender's legs out from under him by striking with the sole of his foot to the outside of the defender's ankle. The sweep is left to right or right to left. As the attacker initiates the necessary footwork, he will use his upper body to throw or twist the defender onto his side or back.

    Okuridashi

    (rear push out) - In this technique, the attacker will drive his opponent out from behind.

    Okurigake

    (rear leg trip) - After working his way behind the defender, the attacker will hook one of his legs around one of the defender’s legs. From this position, he will pull that hooked leg towards him, dropping his opponent forward and down. This technique can be done from either an inside or outside hooking position. Okurigake is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Okurihikiotoshi

    (rear pull down) - In this technique, the attacker has circled behind the defender. From any one of a number of gripping positions he will backpedal away from the defender, dragging him back and down. Okurihikiotoshi is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Okurinage

    (rear throw down) - In this technique, the attacker has circled behind the defender. Standing behind the defender, using any one of several possible hand positions, he throws the defender forward and down or to the side and down. The key point to this technique is the attacker’s position in relationship to the defender at the time of the throw. Okurinage is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Okuritaoshi

    (rear push down) - Similar to okuridashi, here the attacker forces his opponent down from behind with the match usually ending before the opponent is forced over the edge.

    Okuritsuridashi

    (rear lift out) - In this technique, the attacker has managed to circle around the defender. From any one of a number of possible grips, he will drop his hips, lift the defender up and carry him over the edge of the ring. Because both of the defender’s feet are in the air, the attacker can cross the edge of the ring with one foot before the defender’s feet cross over without losing the match. Okuritsuridashi is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Okuritsuriotoshi

    (rear lifting body slam) - After circling around behind the defender, in this technique the attacker will lift his opponent up using any one of several possible grips and then slam him down. Okuritsuriotoshi is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Omata

    (thigh scooping body drop) - The defender will attempt to block an overarm or underarm throw by taking a deep step forward with the foot furthest from the attacker's throwing arm. As the defender steps forward, the attacker will grab that leg from the inside with his free hand and lift it up and backwards. As he does this, he will drive his body into the defender's, forcing him over onto his back.

    Osakate

    (backward twisting overarm throw) - This technique would most commonly be seen at the edge, used by the attacker as he digs in. From a deep, standard outside grip, the attacker will bend backwards and swing his opponent around and out in the direction of that outside gripping hand. Osakate is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Oshidashi

    (frontal push out) - The attacker pushes his opponent out of the ring without gripping the mawashi. Unlike tsukidashi (frontal thrust out) the attacker must maintain hand contact at all times. One of the most common techniques in sumo, it is popular with tsuki/oshi (pushing/thrusting) specialists.

    Oshitaoshi

    (frontal push down) - Similar to tsukitaoshi (frontal thrust down) this technique has the attacker pushing his opponent backwards and then over.

    Sabaori

    (forward force down) - A rare technique, the attacker will have both hands on his opponent's mawashi. As he pulls the defender in, he will throw his weight high into and on top of the defender. The force and weight applied will cause the defender's knees to buckle under him.

    Sakatottari

    (arm bar throw counter) - This is a counter to tottari (arm bar throw) usually seen at the edge. As the rikishi attempting the technique frees the arm being barred, he will turn his hip closet to his opponent inward, forcing the opponent to fall forward.

    Shitatedashinage

    (pulling underarm throw) - This throw is done from an inside grip on the mawashi. As the attacker turns away from his opponent, he will pull him forward and down into the clay with that inside hand.

    shitatehineri

     (twisting underarm throw) - Done from an inside grip, the attacker will twist his opponent down into the clay, pulling him in the direction of the inside hand.

    Shitatenage

    (underarm throw) - One of the most common throwing techniques in sumo, the attacker will pull straight down with his inside, gripping hand as he turns away from his opponent.

    Shumokuzori

    (bell hammer backwards body drop) - This technique gets its name from its similarity in appearance to the shape of a Japanese wooden bell hammer. A variation of tasukezori (reverse backwards body drop) it also can be used during a heated tsuppari(slapping) exchange. The attacker will duck under the defender's lead arm and be caught half way through. In this technique, the defender will find himself draped over the attacker's body in a fireman's carry position. As the attacker lifts the defender up, he will take him over backwards. A sacrifice technique, the attacker will land on his back an instant after the defender is thrown over onto his.

    Sokubiotoshi

    (head chop down) - This technique becomes possible when the defender is caught leaning too far forward. The attacker will chop down with his wrist or forearm at the defender’s neck or the back of his head, forcing him to touch down with one or two hands. Sokubiotoshi is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Sotogake

    (outside leg trip) - As the attacker pulls his opponent into him, he will hook that opponent's lead leg from the outside, driving him over backwards.

    Sotokomata

    (over thigh scooping body drop) - As the defender steps forward, the attacker will grab that lead leg from the outside, over the top of the thigh. He will then lift the leg, driving his opponent over backwards.

    Sotomuso

    (outer thigh propping twist down) - The attacker will release his inside gripping hand and reach across the front of the defender's body to block, or prop, the defender's far leg. At the same time, he will lock up the defender's inside gripping arm while twisting his body into his opponent's. With the defender's far leg blocked from stepping forward, this forces him to fall over onto his back.

    Sototasukizori

    (outer reverse backwards body drop) - This technique becomes possible when the defender has an inside grip. The attacker will bar that gripping arm across his own body. He will then reach over that barred arm with his free hand palm up, grabbing the defender's closest leg from the inside at the thigh. As the attacker pulls the leg up and over, the pain generated by barring one of the defender's arms will force him to touch down with his free hand.

    Sukuinage

    (beltless arm throw) - From an inside gripping position, the attacker will release that gripping hand, extend that inside arm across his opponent's back as he turns away from him and pull the opponent forward and down.

    Susoharai

    (rear footsweep) - The attacker will use a pulling arm throw or arm grabbing force out attempt to work the defender into a position perpendicular to him. Having forced the defender's closest foot forward, the attacker will then sweep that foot from the rear, driving it even further forward. At the same time, he will pull the defender backwards, throwing him onto his side or back.

    Susotori

    (ankle pick) - As the defender attempts a throw, the attacker reaches down and grabs the ankle of his opponent's leg furthest from the defender's throwing arm. He then pulls that leg up and behind him while driving the defender over onto his back.

    Tasukizori

    (reverse backwards body drop) - This technique's name comes from the cord used to tie up kimono sleeves. During a heated tsuppari (slapping) exchange, the attacker will duck under the defender's lead arm and find himself with his back turned to the defender's side. Grabbing the defender's lead arm with one hand and his back leg at the thigh from the inside with the other, the attacker will lean backwards. This motion will force the attacker to sacrifice his upright position but not before driving the defender over onto his side or back.

    Tokkurinage

    (two handed head twist down) - As the defender is leaning forward, the attacker will grab his head or neck with both hands. From this position, he will twist the defender down and over onto his back. This technique was also called gasshohineri but that name is now used to describe a variation of tokkurinage is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Tottari

    (arm bar throw) - This technique often develops from a pushing/thrusting exchange. The attacker will grab one of his opponent's arms, usually at the wrist as he turns parallel to him. His free arm will then wrap around that arm from below. He will then bar it across his stomach or chest, forcing the opponent forward and down.

    Tsukaminage

    (lifting throw) - In this technique the attacker, from an outside grip, will pull his opponent past him. As he completes the pull, he will heave the defender up into the air and drive him into the clay. Where almost all throwing motions in sumo are right to left or left to right, this techniques motion is always right to right or left to left.

    Tsukidashi

    (frontal thrust out) - This is one of the most common pushing/thrusting techniques in sumo. The attacker will drive his opponent backwards and over the edge with a rhythmical thrusting motion. Unlike oshidashi (frontal push out) the attacker does not have to maintain hand contact at all times.

    Tsukiotoshi

    (thrust down) - In this technique, the attacker will drive his opponent down into the clay with a thrusting motion after placing his open hand on the opponent's upper rib cage or at his shoulder. Often used as a last ditch effort at the edge.

    Tsukitaoshi

    (frontal thrust down) - This technique is most commonly seen after the attacker has won a heated slapping (tsuppari) exchange. At the finish of that exchange, the opponent's hips are to far forward and the attacker is able to thust him over onto his back or side.

    Tsumatori

    (rear toe pick) - This technique becomes possible when the attacker has worked his way to the side of his opponent as that opponent is moving forward. As the defender picks up the foot closest to the attacker, the attacker will reach down, grabbing that foot at the toes and pull it back and up. This, coupled with the defender’s own momentum, will force him to fall forward. Tsumatori was originally referred to as rear ankle pick in English but the technique definition was changed during the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Tsuridashi

    (lift out) - This is a power technique that can be done from either a single or double inside grip. Occasionally, it is even seen from a double outside grip. The attacker will take hold of the opponent's mawashi, drop his hips and heave his opponent into the air, lifting him over and out of the ring.

    tsuriotoshi

    (lifting body slam) - This is a power technique only possible when there is a pronounced gap in strength and skill between the attacker and defender. Like tsuridashi (lift out) the attacker will drop his hips while pulling the defender in, then lift him up into the air. In this technique, rather than deposit his opponent outside the ring, the attacker will swing his opponent sideways and drive him into the clay.

    Tsutaezori

    (underarm forward body drop) - In this technique the attacker will dive under one of the defender’s arms while maintaining a grip on that arm. Leaning back and into the defender, he will force him to fall forward and touch down with his free hand. Tsutaezori is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Uchigake

    (inside leg trip) - As the attacker pulls his opponent forward, he will hook the opponent's lead leg from the inside; hooking right leg to left leg or left to right. He will then pull the opponent's leg out from under him, pulling with a circular motion, as he drives him over onto his back.

    Uchimuso

    (inner thigh propping twist down) - This technique can be done from either an inside or outside grip. The attacker will sweep one of the defender's legs up by hitting the inner thigh with the back of his free hand. As that hand makes contact with the opponent's thigh, he will pull with his other hand in the same direction as the sweeping hand.

    Ushiromotare

    (backward lean out) - This technique becomes possible when the defender has managed to circle behind the attacker, usually at the edge of the ring. From this position the attacker will lean into his opponent, forcing him back and over the edge or back and down. Ushiromotare is one of the 12 techniques added in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Utchari

    (backward pivot throw) - This technique is used as a last ditch effort to win after the attacker has been driven to the edge. Before he can be forced out, the attacker will drop his hips while pulling the defender up and past him. In executing this technique, the attacker is quite often forced clean over onto his back. The only thing that earns him the win is the twisting motion of his hips, which often forces his opponent to touch down a fraction of a second before he does.

    Uwatedashinage

    (pulling overarm throw) - From an outside grip, the attacker will pull his opponent forward and down as he turns away from that opponent. The major difference between this technique and uwatenage (overarm throw) is that forward pull.

    Uwatehineri

    (twisting overarm throw) - This throw is done from an outside grip. The technique is done by twisting the opponent in the direction of that outside hand. It is commonly seen when the opponent is conciously defending against an uwatenage (overarm throw) because this throw has the attacker taking the defender in the opposite direction from uwatenhineri.

    Uwatenage

    (overarm throw) - One of sumo's most common throwing techniques, the attacker, from an outside grip, will throw his opponent into the clay by heaving him down at a sharp angle as he turns away from that opponent.

    Waridashi

    (upper-arm force out) - This technique is rarely seen because it requires a pronounced gap in strength between the attacker and the defender. It can be done from either an inside or outside grip. With his free hand, the attacker would grab the defender's arm at the biceps and, while pushing on that arm, drive the defender back and out.

    Watashikomi

    (thigh grabbing push down) - This technique is usually done near the end of a yorikiri (force out) attack. As the attacker drives his opponent to the edge, he will release his outside gripping hand and slide it down to grab the defender's leg at the hamstring or behind the knee. As he continues his forward drive, the attacker will pull that leg towards him, forcing the defender either over the edge or onto his back.

    Yaguranage

    (inner thigh throw) - This technique can be done from either an inside or outside grip. As the attacker pulls his opponent into him, he will drop his hips and place the outside of his knee against the defender's inner thigh. As the attacker starts the throwing motion with the hand on the same side of the leg touching the defender's thigh, he will drive that leg upwards. This, combined with the throwing motion of the attacker's hands, will force the defender over onto his side.

    Yobimodoshi

    (pulling body slam) - This is considered one of sumo's power techniques and is only seen when there is a pronounced gap in strength between the attacker and the defender. The attacker will pull the defender in the direction of the attacker's inside grip. Then, using the defender's reaction against that pull, he will release his inside grip, turn his palm down, and take the defender in the other direction heaving him clean off his feet.

    Yorikiri

    (frontal force out) - One of sumo's most common winning techniques, the two combatants will have come to grips and the attacker will drive his opponent backwards and out of the ring, maintaining a grip on that opponent's mawashi at all times.

    Yoritaoshi

    (frontal crush out) - Similar to yorikiri (frontal force out), in this technique the opponent is driven backwards and literally collapses under the force of the attack. The attacker here too must maintain some grip on his opponent's mawashi.

    Zubuneri

    (head pivot throw) - In this technique, the attacker will bury his head in the defender's chest and then lock up the defender's inside arm by wrapping his own arm around it. He will then twist that inside arm across his own body. With his head as the throw's fulcrum, this twisting motion will force the defender to spin around and over onto his back.

    There are also five ways in which you can win or lose with out any technique being initiated by the offensive man. They are listed as "unofficial" techniques. These mistakes are seen far more often in amature sumo.

    Fumidashi

    (rear step out) - This is when the defending rikishi accidentally steps back over the edge without the attacker initiating any kind of technique. This would most likely happen when the defender is getting ready to launch a counterattack from that position. Fumidashi is recorded outside sumo’s official listing of winning techniques and was introduced with the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Isamiashi

    (forward step out) - This is when the attacking rikishi accidentally steps too far forward and out of the ring before winning the match, giving the victory to his opponent. Isamiashi is recorded outside sumo’s official listing of winning techniques. The English translation was changed from “inadvertent step out” with the introduction of fumidashi (rear step out) in the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Koshikudake

    (inadvertent collapse) - This is when a rikishi falls over backwards without his opponent attempting any technique. It often occurs when a rikishi overcommits to an attack. Koshikudake is recorded outside sumo's official list of winning techniques.

    Tsukihiza

    (knee touch down) - This is when a rikishi stumbles without any real contact with his opponent and loses the match by touching down with one or both knees. Tsukihiza is recorded outside sumo’s official listing of winning techniques and was introduced with the 2001 winning technique list expansion.

    Tsukite

    (hand touch down) - This is when a rikishi stumbles without any real contact with his opponent and loses the match by touching down with one or both hands. Tsukite is recorded outside sumo’s official listing of winning techniques and was introduced with the 2001 winning technique list expansion.